Project title: ‘Tribal Eco Village – A living museum’
Student Name: Devesh Mishra
Guided by: Ar. Shreya Mishra
College: School of Architecture, Noida International University, Greater Noida U.P.
Message from the Thesis guide:
The present study relives the lively tableau of the tribal community in India which highlights the remote villages tucked in Madhya Pradesh & draws it closer to an obscure and indifferent picture of the indigenous tribes. They own their personal identity as Adivasi with distinct lifestyle, with such an enigmatic culture and hospitality, they also significantly hold a contrasting patriarchal and matriarchal society. With an obscure history they are still competing to get along with the modern trend. To get the complete picture about the whole tribe by its own respective culture – food, festival, dance, music, religion and language.
Message from by the Director:
The thesis of Tribal Village, MP is an honest attempt to provide the solution for existing structure in the harmonized way and respecting way and existing structure by Ar. Revathi Kamath. The proposed design has the potential to be a design alternative.
‘Tribal Eco Village – A living museum’ is a museum that recreates tribal culture, traditions and settlements to replicate a diverse functional tribal community. As India is home to about 700 tribal groups with a population of 104 million, as per 2011 census. These indigenous people constitute the second largest tribal population in the world after Africa. There are 46 recognized Scheduled Tribes in Madhya Pradesh, India, the population of Scheduled Tribes (ST) is 21.1% of the state population (15.31 million out of 72.62 million) which is highest in country (census 2011). Today, the tribal majority areas, which overlap with the country’s major forest areas, are also areas with the highest concentrations of poverty. Somehow this poverty has led to depletion of tribal cultures, traditions, vernacular architecture, settlements etc. that leads to De-Tribalisation.
The selected site at Bhopal (capital of central province of India) M.P was proposed for anthropological museum, out of 200 acres on an area of 1.39 acres an indoor museum was built which was inaugurated on 21st march 1977. Which was named as “National museum for mankind” or “Indira Gandhi Rashtriya Manav Sanghralaya”. The design concept has been derived using the principles of tribal settlements. Taking steps to salvage and preserve the fast vanishing aspect of the Tribal Culture. MP has total no. of 46 tribes but this project will include study of only 6 major tribes those are Bhil, Baiga, Baharia, Sahariya, Korku and Gond.
Design approach initially located the primitive tribal habitats, primitive vulnerable tribal groups such as Baiga, Sahariya and Bahariya. Other than these, tribal groups having largest number of populations in Madhya Pradesh such as Gond, Bhil and Korku tribal habitats are considered next. While studying the aspect of tourism in these tribal habitats Madhya Pradesh is divided into the following agro-climatic zones: Kaimur Plateau, Vindhyan Plateau (Hills), Narmada valley, Wainganga valley, Gird (Gwalior) Region, Bundelkhand Region, Satpura Plateau (Hills), Malwa Plateau, Nimar Plateau, Jhabua Hills it is important to understand inter and intra relationship between locality, architecture, tourism of these indigenous people.
- Out of 200 Acres of area only 39 acres is chosen designing for tribal eco village as per site analysis. Site surrounding serves as a strength to site, it provides aesthetic views from and enhance ecological activities and condition around site. National zoological park and upper lake enhances the condition of site environmentally. Site has undulating land which creates natural water flow on site. Slope of site also creates a hidden property; site is well hidden due to slope and vegetation which will be a perk for creating “Tribal Eco Village – A Living Museum”.
- Various aspect of designing this living museum were the inter and intra relationship between Architecture, Nature, Culture and Tourists, Historians, Administrators respectively. Identity of buildings on site represents typology of building such as workshops, accommodations, temple, shops etc., traditional elements such as vernacular architecture, art and paintings, locally available materials, characteristic of spaces such as religious spaces, open spaces, semi open and private spaces.
The tribal populations in the geographically remote areas are still following the indigenous vernacular style for their settlements and habitat. Which portrayed various decent advantages;
- These habitats provide them the needed thermal and visual comforts at reduced level of resource consumption. The semi open spaces around the core of the building helps in reducing the thermal gain whereas the open courtyards are used to catch the sun for agricultural related purposes.
- These practices can be effectively adopted and integrated into the present days building design.
- The settlement pattern of the tribal habitats suggests that the size should be finite to achieve sustainability.
- The structure or shape of the settlement is with respect to the topography.
- The natural drains work as streets, the ridges, the valleys and the vegetation affect the micro-climate and should be considered before placing the building blocks.
- The streets and courtyard in between the cluster modulate the airflow for proper ventilation and also reduces thermal gain in tropical conditions.
- The individual houses don’t have sewerage.
- The waste water from the houses is disposed on the streets which dry up in the sun. The organic waste from the settlement is dumped at one place and is used as manure.
- The buildings are oriented to minimize the solar gain during summers ensuring adequate daylight and protection from rains.
- The spatial configuration allows thermal comfort and sufficient privacy and interactive spaces amongst the habitat.
- The materials used for construction is low embodied energy and provides thermal insulation.
The tribal settlements and habitat demonstrate an economical use of native natural building resources, and respond to climatic conditions using eco-friendly design principles that provide human comfort. These design principles are consistent with the form, orientation and materiality of the buildings. Their combination of social, functional and environmental reveals life full with colour, flavour fervour which, instead of imposing on the nature it emanates from it. Cognitive culture present among these 6 tribal groups creates different zones in a settlement such as religious ground, market zone, educational zone and accommodation with agricultural fields.
Buildings, as their design and use today contribute to serious environmental problems because of excessive consumption of energy and other natural resources. It is also important that the local building wisdom and culture be explored and the precious heritage of vernacular architectural culture be passed on (Jun H. L. et al., 2012).
Presented By : Devesh Mishra